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Looking at how much time workers spend on the road, CO2 emissions, and maintenance and fuel costs, Buffalo, New York, ranks No. 1 as the best metro for commuting with a mean travel time of 20.3 minutes one way, according to Yardi Kube.

Buffalo’s commuter population represents 40% of the total population in the area, and only 2.3% of them spend more than 60 minutes driving to or from work. The shorter commute results in lower commuting costs, with workers spending 1.8% of the average $56,670 income on maintenance and fuel costs, roughly $1,034 per year.

Milwaukee follows Buffalo in the top 10 shortest commutes with a 21.6-minute mean travel time one way and 1.6% of costs going toward the commute annually. As the only California metro on the top 20 for best commutes, San Jose ranks third with a 23.6-minute mean travel time one way and 1.6% of costs going toward the commute annually.

Salt Lake City; Hartford, Connecticut; Minneapolis; Kansas City, Missouri; St. Louis, Missouri; Las Vegas; and Oklahoma City finish the top 10 for best commutes with travel times all under 24.1 minutes one way.

The South is home to six of the worst metros for commuters. The least-friendly commute list includes Orlando, Florida; Miami; Houston, Texas; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta; and Nashville, Tennessee. In the top three for worst commutes are three California metros—Riverside, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. New York City also makes the list of top 10.

Ranking 16 for best commutes, Virginia Beach is the most eco-friendly because of its lowest amount of CO2 emissions from commuters with a 23.8-minute average travel time one way. Yardi Kube reports that driving to and from work in Virginia Beach generates on average 2,403 pounds of CO2 per year for every 10 miles per commuter. Fifty mature trees are needed to offset the emissions of a single commuter.

Raleigh, North Carolina, ranks second on the most eco-friendly commute list and 13th for best commutes with a 26.7-minute average drive time one way. The metro weighs in with 2,414 pounds of CO2 released per year, per commuter driving for 10 miles.

The top five eco-friendly commute list also includes Atlanta; Memphis, Tennessee; and Indianapolis— all with emissions of 2,427 pounds or under per year for every 10 miles of commute.

With 2,877 pounds of CO2 emissions per year for every 10 miles of commute, San Francisco ranks the least eco-friendly. New York falls into second place, followed by San Diego; Austin, Texas; and Los Angeles.