When no one is around, does the HVAC still heat and cool the building? Yes. And that's not a very sustainable way to operate.

Carlo Ratti, founder of Carlo Ratti Associati, proposes a system that is personalized to each individual in the space and therefore dependent on them being there to use it.

Our next Dezeen x MINI Living Initiative video explores Carlo Ratti's proposals to replace traditional heating and cooling systems with personalised environments for different occupants in a building.

Ratti, who founded Italian architecture firm Carlo Ratti Associati and directs the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Senseable City Lab, is developing a number of different technologies that allow personalised heating or cooling.

The Office 3.0 system he designed for an office in Turin, Italy, uses a system of sensors to monitor employees, and instructs heating and cooling systems to follow them around the building to create unique environmental bubbles.

Occupants could set their preferred temperature via a smartphone app. Fan coil units situated in the false ceilings would be activated by their presence, creating a "thermal bubble" that follows them around the building.

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