Based on data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS), the Federal Reserve Board of Cleveland analyzed the time use patterns of employed males and females to find how much each gender was working. They looked at both market work and nonmarket work, which they defined as household chores and childcare. The study found that there were significant differences in the time work patterns of males and females, with child status being the strongest predictor of differences across genders.
Unmarried females without children work about the same amount as do married males with children. Since males tend to work about the same amount of hours regardless of their marital or child status, this implies that the largest gaps across genders are for those who are married and those with children. In contrast, females engage in up to two hours more per day of nonmarket work, which we define as household chores and childcare. Among those who are married, females tend to engage in much more nonmarket work than males, with unmarried females engaging in similar amounts as married males.